Human settlements

Danube Gorge was an area conducive to habitation since the Paleolithic, but most of the settlements were first documented in the Middle Ages and the 19th century.

In the 20th century, two important events for the dynamics of human settlements occurred: the declaration of new localities (in the communes of Sichevita and Sopotu Nou, villages formed by the phenomenon of swarming) and the completion of the “Iron Gates I” accumulation lake, which produced significant mutations at the level of the Danube Gorge settlements:

- The localities of Tisovita, Plavisevita and Ogradena were flooded in 1969 and dissolved, and the families of these localities were moved mostly in Eselnita.

- The locality of Varciorova was dissolved and families moved in Drobeta Turnu Severin and the locality of Ilovita.

- The localities of Gura Vaii, Orsova, Eselnita, Dubova and Svinita were displaced in new areas, the old area being covered by water.

- The localities of Tufari, Jupalnic, and Coramnic disappeared because of their incorporation in the new area of Orsova town.

- The locality of Ada-Kaleh disappeared along with the island, the inhabitants (most of them of Turkish nationality) migrating to different cities of the country (Bucharest, Constanta, Drobeta Turnu Severin, etc.).

- The locality of Drencova disappeared, leaving the toponym for the port with the same name.

Urban settlements

The territory of the Iron Gates Natural Park includes the cities of Orsova, Moldova Noua (with the component localities of Moldova Noua, Moldova Veche, Macesti and Moldovita) and Drobeta Turnu Severin (with the component localities of Gura Vaii and Dudasu Schelei).

The locality with the largest number of inhabitants is Orsova, which, at the census of 2002, comprised 12,965 inhabitants and in 2001 – 14,850 inhabitants.

Built on a new hearth (partly on the former areas of the villages of Jupalnic, Coramnic and Tufari) after the creation of the Iron Gates I accumulation lake, the city of Orsova shows an aggregated structure and a regular texture of the street network.

Among the localities of Moldova Veche and Moldova Noua, the population is concentrated in Moldova Veche (which, at the census of 1992, comprised 11,793 inhabitants), while in Moldova Noua lived only 4,030 inhabitants. These two localities are very close (only 3-4 km). Moldova Veche, first mentioned in 1588, has a compact aggregated structure, being located on the bank of the Danube, opposite to Moldova Veche islet. Moldova Noua was first mentioned in 1717 and has an elongated shape, with buildings along the Bosneg Valley and its tributaries, the Great Valley and the Firizan Brook.

The localities of Moldovita, Macesti, Gura Vaii and Dudasul Schelei, smaller in size and with dominant agricultural activities, have the specific rural physiognomy and population, which is why they are considered rural settlements.

General data on the localities of the Iron Gates Natural Park area

Dubova Commune consists of the villages of Plavisevita, Baia Noua, Dubova, Eibenthal and Tisovita.

According to the 2002 census, there were 1,081 inhabitants in Dubova compared to the census of 1930. The local economy is based on: agricultural activities, forestry, coal processing activities in the vicinity of Orsova and Baia Noua, anthracite mining in the vicinity of Eibenthal, trade, crafts, animal breeding (goats, sheep, cows) in about 50 places, gillnetting, harvesting from the nature (wild strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, rosehips).

The main Orthodox monuments are the Mraconia Monastery and the Church of Dubova dedicated to the Birth of the Virgin.

Traditional habits include the feast dedicated to the Birth of the Virgin, called nedeie, which is celebrated on September 8th; another popular feast is the measurement of sheep in the sheep yard, which is celebrated on the first Sunday of May.

Local folklore offers folk music and dances in traditional costumes, local legends and gourmet varieties. Folk art is identified with handicrafts such as embroideries.

Near the villages of Dubova commune, there are traditional installations, such as the draw mills of the old village of Plavisevita: the Village Mill, the Middle Mill and the Par Mill. The village that lends its name to Dubova commune in located in its Northern-Eastern part, in the valley of the Village brook and the banks of the Danube.

Its origin dates back to the times of the Bufan Romans settlement, who came from Oltenia (onomatology: Dobromirescu, Costescu, Milosescu, Panduru), mentioned on the Austrian map of 1724 with reference to Orsova and Almaj districts. Between 1773 and 1872, there was a military-style organization and it belonged to the Company of the Romania-Banat Border Regiment.

In addition to the villages of Dubova commune, there are dwellings (seasonal households) located in different localities: Hambari’s, Velicipoieni’s, Scorus’, Sparturi’s, Streniac’s, Middle Glade’s, Vucu’s (the old Plavisevita), Poieni’s, On The Djeal, Sbag’s, On The Ciucar (Dubova).

Svinita Commune consists of the village with the same name, defined by the fact that it is inhabited by a community of Serbian origin, with a population of 1,132 inhabitants in 2002

Originally called Sinite, it kept its identity of Serbian Center, due to the isolation from the chain of Romanian villages that are found together with it along the Danube.

Svinita commune is located in the extreme West of Mehedinti County, in the Cauldrons gorge, at 52 km West of Orsova. The village developed in the 13th century, during the Austrian administration as a military border center; in fact, thanks to its special strategic position, it allowed the surveillance of fluvial traffic.

Among the major resources, we should include agriculture, forestry, extraction of construction materials, traditional handicrafts. Traditional activities include fishing with fyke nets, nets and cast nets.

The particularity consists in dwelling, agro-pastoral households inhabited mainly during agricultural and hay works.

Traditional buildings include the draw mills, mills with horizontal wheel located on Tiganski Gully, Vodinicki Gully, Povalina, Staristea, Iuti Valley, and Eliseva. The unique appearance of these mills is given by the presence of several running mill-stones of varying thicknesses, changed simultaneously with galeteaua.

Cultural aspects are related to architecture, music, folklore, folk costumes and dances, legends and gastronomy.

The main cultural events are the Festival of Figs (the last Sunday of August), the Danubian Village Festival (July 3rd), the Festival of Sports (1-2 May), the Minorities’ Music Festival (August).

Among the traditional elements preserved until nowadays, we should mentions the use of the woolen bag used for big weight transportation on the back over long distances. The woolen bag as a transportation object is specific to the Romanian and Serbian population, unlike the Czech population that uses the brenta (hoppet carried on the back).

Eselnita Commune: located in the western part of Mehedinti County, on DN 57, on the Danube bank at 7 km upstream of Orsova, on the current settlement rebuilt in 1967-1970, with the old hearth of the settlement under the waters of the accumulation lake of Iron Gates I.

Previous administrative organization: the village of Eselnita – the capital village of the commune, rebuilt on the current site in 1967-1970, concentrates the population dislocated from the villages of Plavisevita and Tisovita; according to the Austrian map of 1724 and the Austrian conscription of 1743, it was a settlement of Orsova district; in military terms, between 1773 and 1872 it belonged to the 6th Company of Romania-Banat Border Regiment No. 13; in 1872-1948 the forests and pastures belonged to the Ranger Fortune Community; in 1951-1952 it belonged to Almaj-Mehadia district, Severin region; in 1952-1955 it belonged to Almaj-Mehadia division, Timisoara region; in 1956-1968 it belonged to Orsova division, Banat region, and in 1965-1968 it is incorporated in Orsova city.

Population: 2,942 inhabitants.

Resources: pastures, hayfields, orchards, vineyards, forests, chromium mining in Ogradena, artisan workshops, marble quarries, lime pits.

Museums: Ethnography Collection of Doina Olimpia and Teodor Grigore – furniture, traditional occupations, traditional costumes, ceramics, icons, pictures taken from the original villages of Eselnita, Dubova, Ogradena;

The collection of priest Sever Negrescu (Parish Museum established in 1990-1996) – rare books, religious objects, icons, originating from the gorge localities: Tisovita, Ogradena, Plavisevita, Mraconia, Dubova, Eselnita.

Monuments: the monument dedicated to local heroes of the two world wars, 1975

The calendar of events: the Days of Eselnita, 9-10 May, nedeie at the Dormition feast, August 15th.

The municipality of Orsova lies in the South-West of Romania, in Mehedinti County, between Banat Mountains and Mehedinti Mountains, where the Cerna River flows into the Danube. Located in a small depression on Timis-Cerna corridor, the city extends along the bay that bears the river’s name, on an arc of a circle with a length of 4.5 km. The new town, developed around the bay at 3-4 km from the old settlement flooded in the years 1968-1970 by the waters of the Iron Gates I accumulation lake, covers the territory of the former villages of Jupalnic, Coramnic and Tufari. Now the town starts near the accumulation lake, in which the stone and concrete masonry of the sea wall swims, a promenade place for tourists and local people, but also traditional running route for young athletes at the kayaking center in the locality.

The municipalityof Orsova is 18 centuries old and, at the same time, is a new town, built on the hills in the surroundings of the old town that was flooded due to the Iron Gates 1 dam construction. This city appears to us as a sentry at the confluence of several roads. Appreciating its strategic position, the Austrian General Veterani, the commander of the imperial troops that fought against the Turks in this area in 1688, said: the mountain pass at Orsova is of great significance because this is the key of Transylvania, Hungary, the Romanian Country, Serbia and Bulgaria. Archaeological remains found here, a treasure of silver Dacian coins, fragments of Geto-Dacian ceramics certify that within the territory of the ancient Orsova, there was an ancient Dacian settlement called Dierna even at the end of the first millennium of our era.

St. Ana Monastery – a religious settlement whose church was built in 1936-1939, by the perseverance of the journalist Pamfil Seicaru in the memory of those fallen in battles around Orsova area during World War I (architect Stefan Petemeli); architectural style characteristic of ancient Romanian monasteries, U-shape, with sides watched over by cells; titular saint day – July 25th, the day of St. Ana Dormition; particular tourist value conferred by Orsova bay panorama;

The Roman-Catholic Cathedral, built in 1972-1976; modern architecture, concrete construction, cross shape;

The calendar of events: Czech community holidays: Barborky, feast of St. Barbara and Mikulas, the feast of St. Nicholas, early December, Orsova Days – August.

Ilovita Commune located in Bahna River Valley, in a predominantly mountainous relief; neighbors: Ciresu commune in N, Danube in S, Breznita Ocol and Godeanu communes in E, the municipality of Orsova in V, consisting of the villages of Bahna, Ilovita, Moisesti.

Population: 1375 inhabitants.

Forms of temporary habitation outside the village: mansions / dwellings.

Resources: agricultural area, forest found, deposits of limestone and lignite.

Occupations: agriculture, crafts.

The calendar of traditional events: Nedeie at the Dormition – August 15th; the Ball of Underpants – January 31st, a new habit taken from Banat area, pretext for a competition parade of traditional folk costumes, in the sound of the local band or the folk band invited from Baile Herculane, on the night of the Three Holy Hierarchs feast; the name comes from the Oltenian pants worn by all participants in only one night of the year; there are awards for the most beautiful costumes, the most beautiful girl, the prettiest pair of dancers; the Martisor Ball – February 28th; The Sons of the Village, the last Sunday in July.

Traditional cultural products: architecture, costumes, music, dance, folklore, legends, gastronomy.

Traditional architecture monuments: house with two floors of stone and wood, dated 1880.

Cultural activities: blowers’ fanfare of Bahna village, updated since 1999.

Ilovita Village

Location: at the confluence of the Racovat brook with Bahna.

First documented mention:

- 1409-1863, Ilovita / Elhovita village and estate is under the governance of Tismana Monastery;

- 1864 – 50 tribute paying families;

Bahna Village

Location: in N-E part of Ilovita commune, in Bahna brook valley; the settlement was affected by the evacuation for the construction of SHNPF I.

First documented mention:

- 1374, 1385 in books, as a place (siliste) given to Vodita Monastery;

- 1424-1863 – the village and the estate pass to Tismana Monastery.

Bahna was the border limit between the Habsburg /Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Romanian Country / Kingdom of Romania until December 1st, 1918; the Peace Treaty of Sistov (August 21st, 1791) had established that Cerna River would form the border between the two States; by the Delimitation Conventia (1887), the border was moved onto the Bahna River, with an area of 50.000 ha of Mehedinti County occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918 (border picket between Romania and Austro-Hungary (1887-1918).

Population: 471 inhabitants in 2002.

Forms of temporary habitation outside the village: mansions / dwellings, building complex –bi-cellular house, shelters for animals and feed.

Traditions: Nedeie at the Birth of the Virgin feast, September 8th.

Sichevita Commune is located in a beautiful natural setting, the Danube Gorge, in an area of hills and mountains, on the valleys of the rivers of Oravita Valley, Sichevita Valley, Camenita, Liborajdea Crusovita Valley, on the slopes of the Almaj Mountains.

Sichevita, Gornea, Crusovita and Liborajdea are located in the hill area. The localities of Ogasul Podului and Liborajdea, Valea Oravitei, Valea Sichevita, Valea Ravensca, Cracul Almaj, Zanou, Camenita, Cirsie, Curmatura, Frasinis, Straneac, Martinovat, Lucacevat and Zasloane are located in the mountain area, all of them components of Sichevita commune.

Sichevita is an ancient Romanian settlement with traces of habitation as far back as prehistoric era. It is one of the biggest and most beautiful communes in Caras-Severin County. Archaeological research conducted within the perimeter of the commune along the years has revealed materials from the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Dacian and Roman era, Middle Ages; for the knowledge of such vestiges, we should note the studies of Gh. Lazarovici – “Gornea prehistory”, N. Gudea – “Gornea. Settlements in the Roman age and late Roman age”, I. Uzum with numerous studies published in “Banatica” among which “The Romans in the Danube Gorge between the 6th and 14th century”, “Medieval Romanian settlements in Gornea-Tircheviste” etc., which reveal the continuity of the community on the same hearth along the time.

According to the tradition, the first hearth of Sichevita commune was at the place called “Cracu cu Morminti”, then it moved to the place “Cracu Lat” and the third time at the confluence of the Camenita and Sichevita valleys, where it remained till nowadays.

First mentioned in 1363, the locality appears mentioned continuously in all subsequent years and at the mid 18th century a part of the population of the village settles in other places in the vicinity, giving thus the current configuration of the commune with the 17 belonging sparse villages plus Gornea and Sichevita. Since the territory was at first covered with forests, the inhabitants have done massive deforestation in order to be able to practice agriculture. In the year 1774, the locality was included in the Border Valaho-Iliric Regime, residents receiving in 1777 an area of 1,500 m² as a place for building their houses.

The number of inhabitants after the 1992 census was 2,804, of which 1,409 men and 1,395 women. By ethnic groups, in 1992 there were 2,750 Romanian, 32 Gypsies, 12 Serbs, 5 Czechs, 2 Ukrainians, 1 Croatian, 1 German and 1 Bulgarian.

The commune has two churches of the Orthodox Christian cult and 2 churches of the Baptist cult. A monument to the heroes fallen in World War I is located in the Orthodox church in Sichevita.

It is a border area, isolated, without railroad, with an undeveloped infrastructure. One part of the territory is crossed by Orsova-Moldova Noua National Road. People are practicing recreational and industrial fishing in the Danube.

The local feasts are the “prayers or nedei” in Gornea, on 9-10 May in Sichevita, on Monday and Tuesday at Pentecost. A bi-monthly fair in Sichevita. Tourist attractions: Village History and Ethnography Museum of Gornea, Villa Rustica, the Roman Fortress, the Roman brick kiln.

Berzasca Commune is located situated in the southern part of Caras-Severin County, on route DN 57, at 74 km upstream of Orsova and 58 km downstream of Bazias, bordering on the East with the territory of Svinita commune in Mehedinti County, to the West with the territories of Sichevita commune, to the North with the Almaj Mountains and to the South with the Danube River. It has a population of about 3,800 inhabitants. Related localities: Berzasca – 1,955 inhabitants, Liubcova – 1,300 inhabitants, Bigar – 430 inhabitants, Cozla – 180 inhabitants.

First documented in 1692, surrounded by the hills “Cracul cu Toaca”, “Dealul Mic”, “Cloaca”, “Abrila” and “Cracul Lupsii”, Berzasca commune has the origin of its name in the word “birza”, meaning “fast” in the Slavonic language, from the river of the same name, Birzasca, which flows quickly and on whose banks, over the ages and depending on the circumstances, it changed its hearth.

Because of the archaeological excavation, objects in bronze, bracelets, lamps, arrows, pots, coins and ornaments were found, proving the existence of a settlement since the Roman times. Historians argue that the current hearth of Berzasca was established by the end of the 17th century.

Within the commune, there are three arts centers active, in the localities of Berzasca, Liubcova and Bigar. The arts center in Berzasca hosts the activity of the Romanian and Serbian folk music amateur dancers’ band. There is also a library with 1,700 books.

Religious institutions in Berzasca commune: 2 Orthodox churches, 3 Roman Catholic churches, 4 churches of other religious denominations.

Relief consists of mountains, hills, terraces and meadows unfolding in stages from North to South. Mountain relief is represented by the Carpathian border of Locva and Almaj Mountains. The main heights located in the territory of the commune are Iovita (435 m) and Musuroane (420 m) for the Locva Mountains, and Capriva Hill (912 m), Talva Ravna (816 m), Mesnic Hill (783 m), the High Mound (756 m), Talva Toronita (713 m), Ciucaru Peak (544 m) and others for the Almaj Mountains.

The hilly landscape is represented by the upper terraces of the Danube, and the terrace relief by the lower terraces of the Danube and Orevita terraces; both forms are part of the Liubcova Depression, the Orevita compartment.

In terms of climate, the commune falls within the temperate-moderate continental area, with strong Mediterranean influence, with the concrete manifestation of two local microclimates corresponding to the mountain and depression areas. The average yearly temperature is between 9.5 and 11.50oC and average annual rainfall range between 701 and 900 mm.

The evolution and shape of the relief of this area and the sub-Mediterranean mild climate offer special conditions for the development of different types of ecosystems of an outstanding scientific interest.

Local feasts: the “Prayer”, organized every year on 13th -14th of July.

Garnic Commune is located on Camenita Valley in the southeastern part of Locva Mountains, in the southern part of Caras Severin County, on the route DJ 571A, at 125 km from the capital of the County and 14 km from the town of Moldova Noua. Settlement of agro-pastoral profile (many workers in the mine originated from here, when Cozla mining was active), at Girnic in the early decades of the 20th century people were raising barley, oats and clover; they were growing horses and almost there was no family without horses: “… the horse meant economic power”, not just here but also in St. Helena; another specific element was represented by the lime production: with more than 70-80 years ago, the village provided the needs of the entire gorge; lime pits (vápenca) could be found in households, reduced in size, for burning the raw material. There was also a mill, as well as facilities for the manufacture of boards. Furthermore, a particular type of local clay went for export, requested for its ability to enter into the composition of paints. Getting lime required a lot of attention and “slave work. In this way, the bread earned was so expensive that you collect each gobbet”. The laborious procedure required selecting only the white lime stone (not yellowish or bluish), the erection of four “maurs” (pillars) and a wooden scaffolding (on which the lime stone was arranged) and the construction of the kiln, where the fire was kept for 48 hours continuously; before selling the lime, the effort was celebrated with plum brandy kept in mulberry tree barrels.

Garnic commune includes two villages: Garnic, the capital village, and Padina Matei. It borders to the North with Carbunari commune, to the West with the town of Moldova Noua, to the South with Sichevita commune and to the East with Sopotu Nou commune.

The relief is predominantly hilly, with rich vegetation composed mostly of beech forests, and due to the fact that a non-polluting agriculture was practiced in this area, you can find here many species of wild animals.

The population of the commune is composed mostly of Czechs. They generally deal with agriculture, animal breeding and agro tourism, and only one part is working in industry. In addition, due to the fact that the area is rich in limestone, the locals deal with the manufacture of lime, which is burnt in kilns excavated in the ground and is then distributed throughout the Gorge area. This craft is practiced since the coming of the first Czech settlers in the commune.

The activities specific to the area are craft activities (carpenters, wheelwrights, blacksmiths, belters).

Local events: “Farsang” – fancy ball 6 weeks before the Easter holidays, Harvest Ball at Garnic, in August, the monthly fair in Garnic (last Sunday of the month).

The city of Moldova Noua is located in Caras-Severin County at the foothills of the Locva Mountains, with the main settlement in a depression surrounded by hills. Moldova Noua (Hungarian – Újmoldova, Czech – Nová Moldava, German – Neumoldowa, Serbian – Nova Moldava or Bosniak) is a town in Caras-Severin County, Banat, Romania. It has a population of over 13,000 inhabitants. It is one of the most important towns of the County. Neighbors: to the Wets – Pojejena commune, to the East – Coronini commune, to the North – Garnic and Carbunari communes, to the South – the Danube.

Brief history: There was a Dacian fortress here – Mudava, near which the Romans built a fort, over which, in 1427-1428, a fortress was built which was then destroyed by the Turks in the 17th century; in 1723, it is listed on the map with the name of Pesnac. In the 18th century, it appears on the Vienna map with the name of Bania Moldava i.e. Moldova mine, and in 1908 it appears in the Land Register as Neu Moldava i.e. Moldova Noua.

Inhabitants: July 1st, 2001 – 14,801, of which 7,361 men and 7,440 women

Occupation: mining, logging, fishing

Ethnic groups (1992 census): Romanians – 14,708; Serbians – 2,490; Germans – 45; Hungarians – 373; Ukrainians – 17; Swabians – 1; Czechs – 233; Bulgarians – 6; Turks – 7; Slovaks – 20; Greeks – 2; Poles – 1; Csangos – 5; Gypsies – 292.

The peculiarities of the area:

- Mining sector, copper mining.

- Forestry sector.

- The status of a “less-favored area” in 1999.

Component villages: MOLDOVA VECHE, MACESTI, MOLDOVITA

            Local feasts:

- Nedee Moldova Noua: May 21st, Saints Constantine and Helena.

- Miner’s Day.

- Nedee Moldovita, August 15th, Dormition Day.

- Fasanc.

- The “GOLDEN POT” Festival – August 8th

- the Festival of Accordionists in the Danube and Nera Gorge – September

Coronini Commune is located on the left bank of the Danube River, at the West of the component village of Saint-Helena, under the plateau of “Varad” hill, on a rocky terrain. It has the administrative status of a commune within Caras-Severin County.

Brief history: the locality of Coronini dates back to the Empress Maria Theresa, and was named after the former general in the Austrian army, the Count Johann Baptist Coronini-Cronberg, the President of the Imperial Administration of Serbia and Timisan Banat Voivodeship between 1849 and 1859. The local population originated from Gorj County, through the settlement of the wood cutters in the area of the Radimna River. The settlement is attested during the Pashalik of Timisoara under the name of Alibeg.

The number of inhabitants is 2,026 at July 1st, 2001, and the main occupation is agriculture and fishing.

Churches: Baptist Church, Orthodox Church – the majority.

Local feasts: Nedeea, which is dedicated to the Orthodox Church, on St. Elijah (July 20th).

Secular holiday – Fasanc.

Traditional crafts: Fishing, with all kinds of tools for fishing.

In Coronini, there is an elementary school with 8 grades, composed of two bodies with 8 classrooms, and a kindergarten.

In the village of Saint Helena a modern school with 8 grades was given into use, whose construction and facilities were financed by the Government of the Czech Republic.

Coronini (Pescari): rural settlement, the ruins of a medieval fortress, which is believed to had been at its root the residence of the Voivode Glad, rebuilt then in stages: the first enclosure in the 13th century, the surrounding wall in the 14th century, the central nucleus in the 15th century; nearby, Gaura Chindiei cave, where rupestral drawings and an inscription in Cyrillic were found, dating back to the 10th – 11th century;

Saint Helena: rural village founded by Czech settlers brought here for forestry in 1825-1828, karst plateau with numerous attractive shapes: lapiezuri (polished rocks, furrowed with different depths of ditches, separated by sharp ridges), sinkholes, small lakes in sinkholes, etc.; Saint Helena was the second Czech village established in Banat, the main reason why the Czechs were settled in this locality was the development of wood mining. The vast majority of Czechs came from the “tředočeský kraj” region. They raised a Catholic Church in 1879 and an Evangelic one in 1887.

The Medieval Fortress (Ladislaus Fortress) was built by Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg and placed under the patronage of Saint Ladislaus. Later it was entrusted to the Teutonic Knights. In 1433 the Fortress Commander was Eberhard Sax. The fortress was destroyed after 1526. The ruins can be seen from Moldova Veche.

Pojejena Commune consists of the villages of Pojejena, Divici, Radimna, Belobresca and Susca and is one of the most important localities in the Danube Gorge. The commune is located on the left bank of the Danube, between the river kilometer 1054-1062 upstream of Moldova Noua with 12 km, surrounded to the North by piedmonts whose heights do not exceed 300 meters, the altitude of the area ranging between 110 and 130 m.

In the Southeast it borders on the village of Macesti, in the northwestern part on the village of Radimna and to the West on the Susca village. For the most part, the locality is smooth with mild ripples in the North, rising slightly towards the Northeast. The southern slope of the northern hill and western slope of the eastern hill are covered by erosions produced by the spring streams. “Pojejena Pond” lies to the South, created after the construction of the hydro-dam of “Iron Gates I”, in 1968, when the water mirror came up to the edge of the village gardens.

The hydrologic network is represented by the Danube River to the South, Radimna brook in the western part, 1t 1 km from the end of the commune, Pojejena brook at 50-100 m from the Southeast, both flowing in the Danube River. The width of the Danube opposite the city of Moldova Noua is approximately 5 km, and opposite Pojejena is 800-1,000 meters, with a water-rate speed of 5-6 m/s.

Schools: the school of Lower Pojejena (Romanian) moved into the new building in 1964; it also has the classes I-IV in the Serbian language. The building is one-story, with 9 classrooms, 2 classrooms for kindergarten and a laboratory. The school of Lower Pojejena (Serbian) was established in 1921. During the years 1970-1980, the school operated with 10 classes, 500 students and 39 teachers.

The Communal library includes a number of 7,150 books and a number of about 500 readers, having three offices: – the Romanian Pojejena – 4,700 books with 260 readers; School library with 300 books and 100 readers; Belobresca – operates in the school building with a total of 2,850 books, of which 1,200 in the Serbian language and 1650 in the Romanian language.

Customs and feasts: the Measurement of Sheep, at St. George, when every sheep owner goes to the sheep yard with the whole family dressed in holiday clothes and they proceed to milking sheep; the Measurement of Milk serves as a basis for calculating the cheese throughout that year. The sheep who gives the most milk at milking is crowned with a crown of flowers and leaves (the measurement being made by many owners, the entire ewe-cheese from that day belonged to the one who had the milkiest sheep). The measurement was followed by the feast of the owners, which, sometimes extended up to late night.

The “Fasanc” – or the Carnival, a secular tradition when young people dress in comic vestment, with funny face masks.

Traditional costume: the Serbian folk costume disappeared between the two world wars and is back in these days. Romanian folk costume has been preserved in the Romanian Pojejena and is defined by simplicity and elegance in men – the white Banatean shirt long up to the knees with embroideries at collar and sleeves, laibar – woolen stockings with floral ornaments, stylized motifs girdle.